This clamour is not based on any sound principle”. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah: Speeches and Statements 1947-48 Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Islamabad 1998, p. 183. The Indian government secured, under questionable circumstances an instrument of accession from the Hindu Maharaja on 27 October 1947, thus opening the way to India’s military intervention in Kashmir. Being feudatory to Junagadh, the Sheikh, ruler of Mangrol, had no authority to accede independently to India or Pakistan. The New York times, 10 September, 1948. That they are still on the other side of the border is not due to the fact that we have been unmindful of their sad plight. I do not think my Government is in a position to tender advice to the Indian Government or to Your Exalted Highness as to the precise constitutional relationship. Hurdles in the way of women empowerment in Pakistan a. Armored divisions         6                      14, Artillery divisions          8                      40, Infantry                        8                      21. Another problem was that of public health. Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre, Freedom at Midnight, P. 179. There is considerable evidence to show that the riots were started by the Sikhs and the Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangha. Quaid-i-Azam and Early Problems of Pakistan Iqtidar Karamat Cheema . (Ref "58"), Infact the State had applied for accession earlier. The Government of Pakistan protested against the Indian occupation of Manavadhar and condemned Indian aggression by calling it totally illegal and unconstitutional. This left the farmers and in fact the economy of the East wing at the mercy of Indian mill owners for a reasonable price of their product. (Ref "81"), The above-mentioned States: Junagadh, Manavadhar, Mangrol, Jodhpur etc. Out of 165,000 tons of ordnance stores due to her, only 4,703 tons she had received. The pattern of government had yet to be determined, the broad outlines of the State policies, domestic as well as foreign, to be worked out and the kind of society to be built was still not known. Even though Quaid-i-Azam as a great champion of peace and international amity, he had no illusions in this respect. Please keep us informed like this. The London Times of 4th September, 1947, reported that a column of Muslims refugees twenty miles long, and estimated at twenty thousand. No. R.M. On 21 August 1948, Hyderabad first brought the dispute between India and Hyderabad before the Security Council under Article 35, paragraph 2 of the Charter as the Indian Government, despite its Standstill Agreement with Hyderabad on 29 November 1947, had continued: The economic blockade which had started prior to that date…..with increasing intensity and included even such items as medicine, chlorine for purifying water and other basic essentials…..It has also been indicated that the blockade may soon be followed by military invasion. (Ref "147"), Hindus had been actively trying to undermine the economic fabric of Pakistan even before it came into existence. All governments were headed to bring in former Indian officials who had opted for Pakistan. The Indian leaders reckoned that, since Pakistan was not economically viable while India was, they could, without serious injury to themselves, hasten her collapse by an antagonistic policy. On 14 August 1947, Muhammed Ali Jinnah was sworn in as Governor-general of Pakistan. (Ref "132"). The Muslims were terrorized by Indian armed forces. It was reported that some of the Minister used wooden boxes as their tables and had practically no filling system. You have fought many a battle on the far-flung battlefields of the globe to rid the world of the Fascist menace and make it safe for democracy. But as Pakistan faced almost immediate war with India over Kashmir, it needed the best army it could raise, no matter who was leading it. agriculture, industry and commerce. Quaid-e-Azam as Governor-General chose Karachi. (Ref "50"), The main burden of rehabilitating refugees was borne by West Punjab which lay in the path of incoming refugees. (Ref "111"), His Government, therefore, had to devote much more resources meager in themselves in order to build a strong armed forces even at the cost of developmental work. The problem for Pakistan was that the flow of water through the canals and rivers was controlled at a series of headworks all of which lay in the part of Punjab the canals and rivers were controllers at a series of headworks all of which lay in the part of Punjab that was now in India. 326, p. 492. Economic problems. (Ref "124"), Were the most serious problems in the political life of Pakistan after 1947. N. Mansergh, op. The first task before the newly born state was to form a government, and a cabinet of experienced people, with Muhammed Ali Jinnah as Governor-General and Liquate Ali Khan as Prime Minister, was formed. Impressed with the spirit of enthusiasm of Pakistan, the Muslims from all over India, particularly from Delhi Province and the Western district of U.P. However, India and Pakistan were soon in a dispute over the canals, especially the waters from the Bari-Doab canal. p. 129. (Ref "60"), The state was a reverse of Kashmir: Hindu in population but the Ruler was a Muslim. Wayne A. Wilcox, India, Pakistan and the rise of China, New York 1964, pp. S.M. Around 90 % of the people lived in the countryside, and there were only 8 towns with a population of more than 100,000 (Karachi, Lahore, Dhaka, Hyderabad, Rawalpindi, Multan, Sialkot, and Peshawar). (Ref "64"), The Indian Government also stopped food, petrol and all communications, mail, telegraphic, telephonic, between Junagadh State and the outside world in order to starve the State into submission. In doing so he would ‘take into account other factors’. V.P., Menon, Story of the integration of Indian States, p. 123. All the more, Bengali’s Chief Minister, Hussein S. Suherawardy, demanded Bengali’s complete independence in 1947 and, on being rebuffed by Quaid-i-Azam, decided not to live in Pakistan. Arrangements were made to bring in former Indian officials who had opted for Pakistan. On the question of whether the states could become independent, there was a difference of opinion between the Congress and the Muslim League. They were forced to send a cable to the UN Security Council that the situation in Manawdhar was peaceful and were threatened that their properties would be confiscated in case they go to Pakistan. Mudie and Mamdot suggested plan for speedy solution of Refugee problem Consequently, Liaquat stated that the Government of Pakistan “must refuse in any way to facilitate abandonment by Muslim of their homes and properties in India outside East Punjab”. The Pakistan Times, 3 January 1948, p. 3a. The Quaid-i-Azam at once instructed Francis Mudie, Governor of the Punjab, who was with him, to telephone Gracey to obey his orders immediately. Prime Minister Attlee told the Nizam: (Ref "97"), The above quoted stunning report of Claude Auchinleck, Supreme Commander of the armies of India and Pakistan was sent to British Prime Minister on 28 September, 1947, just six weeks after the Partition. XII, No.385, p. 603. The Muslims genocide in India, followed by the refugee problems, created bad blood among the two Dominions. Despite the most discouraging condition, Quaid-i-Azam Government was able to make astonishing strides in building an economically viable state. Emphasizing the need for a strong and efficient Air Force he said, “A country without a strong Air Force is at the mercy of any aggressor. Pakistan was not a wealthy country and its major activity, agriculture, did not produce a sufficient surplus to create the wealth needed for industrialization. It appears that Radcliffe’s interpretation of the phrase of ‘other factors’ did not favour Pakistan but India only. (Ref "48"), The Pakistan government estimated that in the exchange of population, excluding those from Kashmir, approximately 6,500,500 refugees came into Pakistan. 454, Columns 1728, 1730, 30 July 1948. Early problems after partition: Initial Problems of Pakistan after Independence in Urdu and English the illogical division on the part of red cliff caused tremendous dislocation of population. Mixed guards were provided for the refugee camps as well as armed escorts for foot, railway, and motor convoys. and Delhi, 3 from Saharanpur and one from Meerut to Pakistan”(Ref "32"), The dispatch of these trains from Delhi and U.P. It is an open secret that writing standard English and grammatical accuracy play a vital role in success in essay writing for CSS Exam. cit,., Vol. Especially foreign exchange, in order to build new industries, power projects, and adequate irrigation schemes. A good many of them have already found asylum in Pakistan. But why should it mean that? The militant section of the Sikhs and RSSS wanted “to throttle Pakistan by eliminating the Muslim Population”. On 18th September, the Governor- General of Pakistan sent a telegram to the Governor-General of India stating that there were large troop concentrations along the borders of Junagadh and other States in Kathiawar which had acceded to Pakistan. People are packed in the buses and vans like sacks, young students climb up the roofs of the buses, vehicle’s horns never allow you … As honorable people, we must abide by it. The evacuation or those unfortunate persons have been our first concern and everything that is humanly possible is being done to alleviate their suffering. All the jute mills were in the new India in spite of the fact that East Pakistan produced more than 90 percent of jute. On the countrary, in every disputed case of accession, he threw his weight in favour of India. Quaid-e-Azam took the office of the Governor-General, Liaquat Ali Khan was appointed as Prime Minister and a Cabinet of experienced persons was selected. In the following text we will shed some light on some of the major problems faced today by Pakistan as a country. P. 229. Mountbatten did nothing (took no concerted action) against the Hindu-Sikh leaders who indulged in open incitement to violence against the Muslims. A large area in West Punjab was dependent for its electricity needs upon the Mandi Hydroelectric Works in East Punjab. 2006. Background Formation of Pakistan Historical Background Early Problems for Pakistan Early challenges for the First Governor General of Pakistan (Ref "29"), The Prime Minister of Pakistan thought that if the Government of India were to implement their reiterated promises truly to give full protection to their Muslim materials honestly and lonely, the question of evacuation of Muslims nationals, from Delhi and U.P would not arise. Darjeeling and Jalpaigari were also handed over to Bharat. Since the Chief of Mangrol had no independent status, so its accession followed automatically after Junagadh whose vassal it was. Jute export produced the major source of foreign exchange earnings for Pakistan for many years. Instead he cut short. (Ref "46"), The problem was not merely one of absorbing on setting these refugees on the lands left by Hindus or Sikhs but also that of feeding, clothing and rendering medical aid to them as they arrived in most pitiable conditions. In 1947, Pakistan finally gained its long for independence, but it immediately faced very serious problems. Pakistan is an agricultural state thus agriculture gains are of much importance than any other sector. (Ref "24"), He, therefore, contented himself with “moth-eaten” and “truncated” Pakistan and relying upon the fair-mindedness of the British people gave an assurance that his country would accept and abide by the decision of the Boundary Commission. Areas of taxes left behind by evacuees could not be recovered. White, The Great Leader Quaid-e-Azam, Lahore, 1962. p. 90. Since Pakistan and India achieved independence in 1947, Pakistan has been Without hesitation the Quaid said: In view of the Admiral’s statement it would be suicidal attempt to intervene. But to the surprise of the Pakistanis, the Indian foreign policy behavior, instead of helping Pakistan, further aggravated its position. They did not even have protection of the Indian Army. The supply lines of the Mandi Hydro-electric works were also disrupted. Traffic is a very common problem of the citizens of Pakistan. 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